2012-03-15
2018-05-02

Dr Faustus

Poster for "Dr Faustus", author: Waldemar Krygier

a performance based on Christopher Marlowe’s drama (c. 1589), with the premiere (which was also the first ever Polish performance of Marlowe’s drama) taking place on 23 April 1963 at the Laboratory Theatre of 13 Rows in Opole.

Script and direction: Jerzy Grotowski. Stage design: Jerzy Gurawski. Costumes: Waldemar Krygier. Assistant director: Eugenio Barba. Cast: Zbigniew Cynkutis (Faustus), Rena Mirecka and Antoni Jahołkowski (Mephistopheles), Ryszard Cieślak (Wagner, Valdes, Benvolio), Maciej Prus then later Mieczysław Janowski (Jacob), Zygmunt Molik (Old man, Bartek), Andrzej Bielski (Cornelius, the Cardinal, Emperor Friedrich), Tune Bull (Helen of Troy).

The performance used Jan Kasprowicz’s translation, which Grotowski radically re-edited and rearranged. The multiple locations and times of the plot were reduced (as they were in previous stagings) to a single scene which provided the situational frame. The scene was a farewell banquet to which Faust, on his deathbed, invites his students (this role was performed by the audience and two actors – Zygmunt Molik and Maciej Prus, who made comments as characters portraying ‘ordinary people’ and thus also provided the audio background to the action). During the course of this peculiar Last Supper, the main protagonist presented particular scenes from his life to those gathered, thus performing something of a dramatic confession.

The central element of the performance space designed by Jerzy Gurawski was a wooden stage-cum-table which filled the entire auditorium, with its T-shape constructed from two parallel rows of platforms in one direction and a single row at the top. The audience members sat along the platforms on which Faustus played out his life. The performance began with greeting the guests and the opening part of the monologue in which the lead character presents himself. After this there followed a series of scenes recalling the key moments from Faustus’ life: he went to Cornelius and Valdes seeking the secret spell for summoning Satan. This conversation was played out as a confession, with Faustus eventually receiving the spell as his absolution. The blasphemous nature of the performance was clearly evident in the scene in which the spirits are summoned through singing the hymn ‘Ludu, mój ludu’ (O, My People). A double Mephistopheles then appeared, summoned by the hymn and played simultaneously by Antoni Jahołkowski and Rena Mirecka, who wore black habits. The double Mephistopheles replaced the Good and Evil angels, protagonists from the original text, who battle for Faustus’ soul. In Grotowski’s performance there was no choice: as in Cain, good and evil appeared as a single entity. The signing of the pact with the devil was preceded by Faust’s self-abasement, during which he vilified himself, beat himself and touched his genitals in an obscene manner. The sealing of the bargain took the form of a baptism, with Faustus immersing himself in the space between two rows of tables, which was accompanied by the sound of gurgling. The scene concluded with an image making reference to the iconography of the Virgin Mary: the female Mephistopheles, promising Faustus that s/he would fulfil his every order, with a gesture reminiscent of the Virgin Mary cradled the leading protagonists in her arms. After signing the bargain with the devil, Faustus removed his old clothes and replaced them with a new white Dominican cassock. He initiated the realisation of his desires and whims with the ‘reading of the woman’ sequence, in which the body became a book of ‘the mysteries of nature’. Following a subsequent scene which revealed the trap into which Faustus had fallen (the female Mephistopheles took on the function of an agent provocateur, a false Angel tempting Faust to convert), the lead protagonist learned about the world’s triviality (a discussion about beer conducted by peasants sitting among the audience) and its sinfulness. Mephistopheles (Jahołkowski and Mirecka alternately) appeared as allegorical characterisations of the Seven Deadly Sins, with Faustus absolving each of them in turn. This was Faustus’ first so-called miracle, with further such miracles following: healing the Pope’s pride with a slap and restoring Benvolio’s inner child by healing his rage. Following this scene, the action returned to the Last Supper, with Faustus summoning with his gaze Helen of Troy, who then laid with her legs open before he approached her barefoot three times and each time ran away before assuming the foetal position. Following the devil’s presentation of a false alternative to both Paradise (Mirecka laying on a platform with her arms folded as an image of ‘a good death’) and also Hell (Jahołkowski in his death throes), Faustus begins his final grand monologue which ultimately ends with a scream and a series of inarticulate sounds resembling erotic ecstasy. The dead man is carried away by the male Mephistopheles, who places him over his shoulder like quarry hanging inertly with his head facing downwards and his arms banging against the boards of the stage. They are followed by the female Mephistopheles with his/her hands positioned as if praying and humming ‘Ludu, mój ludu’.

The performance, full of blasphemous references to Christian iconography, became a mystery play depicting the life and death of a ‘saint who is acting against God’ (Flaszen, Grotowski and Company, p. 97). His fundamental principle was that the world as we know it is intolerable to live in, thus redemption can only possibly be achieved by going against its rules. By rejecting the rules of the world, Faust indicated that a different – both epistemological and redemptive – perspective must necessarily be in existence: a perspective which can be experienced only by paying the price of denying that which is innate. In staging the myth of a rebel by using both Christian symbolism and the dramatic model of the mystery play, Grotowski made reference to the figure of Jesus Christ, interpreting him heretically as a rebel who would redeem us from the world and the Law. As a reminder and repetition of this rebellion and sacrifice, Dr Faustus became an attempt at a blasphemous Mass and evoking a human, non-religious Eucharist, in which the human-actor who becomes body and blood is sacrificed. Of fundamental significance to the efficacy of theatrical performance understood in such a way is the realness of the actor’s sacrifice, which radically transcends the limits of theatrical play.

In working on the role of Faustus, particularly his final monologue, Grotowski together with Zbigniew Cynkutis attempted for the very first time to bring about the total act. This was only partially successful, because despite it working during one-on-one rehearsals, it could not be structured to such an extent that it could be reproduced precisely. Nevertheless, it was indeed work on this performance that showed the way towards the fulfilment of the total act that came with The Constant Prince. Outside Opole, Dr Faustus was presented as part of guest appearances in Kraków (9–15 May 1963), Łódź (8–18 June 1963), Świdnica and Wałbrzych (October 1963), Zielona Góra (17–21 October 1963) and Poznań (23–31 October 1963). The performance also raised awareness of Grotowski abroad. Fragments of Dr Faustus were recorded during a rehearsal in June 1963 by Michael Elster and then used in the film The Laboratory Theater (Polish title List z Opola) which was later presented during foreign tours. Furthermore, on the initiative of Eugenio Barba, participants of the 10th Congress of the International Theatre Institute being held in Warsaw during the performances by the Laboratory Theatre of 13 Rows in Łódź, were brought to that city on a bus that had been hired by Barba in order that they witness the performance. The performance made such a great impression on the participants of this ‘excursion’ that the group subsequently received invitations to perform abroad, including one invitation to the Theatre of Nations in Paris. Although the central cultural authorities were opposed to the company’s trips abroad in 1964 and 1965, the reputation that the group gained as an extraordinary theatre functioning in Poland made the road to the later triumphs of Grotowski and his actors much easier.

Bibliography: 

Dr Faustus
Compiled by Monika Blige and Karolina Sołtys


In Polish

1963

Danecki R.: Nasz recenzent zanotował, „Ekspress Poznański” 1963 nr 251.

Falkowski Jerzy: Po opolskim sezonie teatralnym 1962–1963. Prywatny bilans recenzenta, „Kalendarz Opolski na rok 1964”, TRZZZ, Opole 1963.

Flaszen Ludwik: Tragiczne dzieje doktora Fausta”. Komentarz do przedstawienia, „Materiały – Dyskusje” 1963 (kwiecień), Teatr Laboratorium 13 Rzędów, Opole. Przedruki [w:] Ludwik Flaszen: Teatr skazany na magię, przedmowa, wybór, opracowanie Henryk Chłystowski, Wydawnictwo Literackie, Kraków – Wrocław 1983, s. 306–309; [w:] Misterium zgrozy i urzeczenia. Przedstawienia Jerzego Grotowskiego i Teatru Laboratorium, pod redakcją Janusza Deglera i Grzegorza Ziółkowskiego, Instytut im. Jerzego Grotowskiego, Wrocław 2006, s. 70–71; [w:] Ludwik Flaszen: Grotowski & Company. Źródła i wariacje, wstęp Eugenio Barba, Instytut im. Jerzego Grotowskiego, Wrocław 2014, s. 79–80.

J[agoszewski] M[ieczysław]: „Tragiczne dzieje doktora Fausta”, „Dziennik Łódzki” 1963 nr 138, z 11 czerwca, s. 3.

Kelera Józef: Krótka seria z suplementem, „Odra” 1963 nr 2, s. 79–82.

Kustow Michael: Ludens Mysterium Tremendum et Fascinosum, „Proscenium” Teatr Polski w Poznaniu, sezon 1963/1964, 1964 (styczeń–luty). Pierwodruk w języku angielskim Ludens Mysterium Tremendum et Fascinosum, „Encore” (Londyn) 1963 IX–X, s. 9–14.

Nienacki Zbigniew: Tradycja i nowoczesność w Pałacyku ZMS, „Odgłosy” 1963 nr 10, z 10 marca, s. 1, 4.

O[lgierd] B[łażewicz]: Alchemicy teatru, „Głos Wielkopolski” 1963 nr 254.

ob. [Olgierd Błażewicz]: Teatr-Laboratorium w Poznaniu, „Głos Wielkopolski” 1963 nr 251.

Sbrana Leone: Notatnik z podróży po Polsce, „Współczesność” 1963 nr 16, z 16–31 lipca, s. 2.

z [Zenon Bosacki]: „Dzieje doktora Fausta” na scenie Teatru 13 Rzędów, „Gazeta Poznańska” 1963 nr 252, z 23 października, s. 4.

Zatrybówna Alicja: 13 Rzędów. Antyteatr czy teatr nowoczesny?, „Gazeta Zielonogórska” 1963 nr 252, z 23 października, s. 3. Przedruk [w:] Misterium zgrozy i urzeczenia. Przedstawienia Jerzego Grotowskiego i Teatru Laboratorium, pod redakcją Janusza Deglera i Grzegorza Ziółkowskiego, Instytut im. Jerzego Grotowskiego, Wrocław 2006, s. 171–173.

 

1978

Osiński Zbigniew: „Tragiczne dzieje doktora Fausta” według Marlowe’a, [w:] Tadeusz Burzyński, Zbigniew Osiński: Laboratorium Grotowskiego, Wydawnictwo Interpress, Warszawa 1978, s. 33–34.

 

1964

Błoński Jan: 13 rzędów nie takich jak inne, „Przekrój” 1964 nr 1025, z 29 listopada, s. 5–6.

Kłossowicz Jan: Podróż do źródeł teatru, „Polityka” 1964 nr 51–52, z 19–26 grudnia, s. 7. Przedruki [w:] tegoż: Teatr stary i nowy, Wydawnictwa Artystyczne i Filmowe, Warszawa 1973, s. 162–175; [w:] Misterium zgrozy i urzeczenia. Przedstawienia Jerzego Grotowskiego i Teatru Laboratorium, pod redakcją Janusza Deglera i Grzegorza Ziółkowskiego, Instytut im. Jerzego Grotowskiego, Wrocław 2006, s. 238–249.

Mykita-Glensk Czesława: Życie teatralne Opola, „Kwartalnik Opolski” 1964 nr 3–4.

 

1978

Osiński Zbigniew: „Tragiczne dzieje doktora Fausta” według Marlowe’a, [w:] Tadeusz Burzyński, Zbigniew Osiński: Laboratorium Grotowskiego, Wydawnictwo Interpress, Warszawa 1978, s. 33–34.

 

1980

Osiński Zbigniew: Grotowski i jego Laboratorium, Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, Warszawa 1980, s. 73–75.

 

1992

Gurawski Jerzy: Grotowski miał sześć palców, „Notatnik Teatralny” 1992 nr 4 (zima), s. 51–57.

 

1995

Cieślak Ryszard: Szaleństwo Benwolia, wybór i opracowanie Zbigniew Jędrychowski, „Notatnik Teatralny” 1995 nr 10 (wiosna–lato), s. 40–47.

 

2000

Cynkutis Zbigniew: Notatnik-pamiętnik, do druku podała Malina Cynkutis, opracowanie Zbigniew Jędrychowski, „Notatnik Teatralny” 2000 nr 20–21, s. 167–174.

 

2001

Barba Eugenio: Wartość jednego autobusu, przełożyła Monika Gurgul, [w:] Eugenio Barba: Ziemia popiołu i diamentów. Moje terminowanie w Polsce oraz 26 listów Jerzego Grotowskiego do Eugenia Barby, przełożyła Monika Gurgul, redakcja przekładu Anna Górka, redakcja merytoryczna Zbigniew Osiński, Ośrodek Badań Twórczości Jerzego Grotowskiego i Poszukiwań Teatralno-Kulturowych, Wrocław 2001, s. 91–99. Pierwodruk „Rzeczpospolita” 2001 nr 110, s. D3. Przedruk [w:] Tysiąc i jedna noc. Związki Odin Teatret z Polską, wstęp i redakcja Zofia Dworakowska, opracowanie Monika Blige, Instytut im. Jerzego Grotowskiego, Wrocław 2014, s. 35–40.

 

2004

Wójtowicz Agnieszka: „Proszę Pana, czy ten teatr jest jeszcze teatrem?”. Tragiczne dzieje doktora Fausta” według Christophera Marlowe’a [w] Agnieszka Wójtowicz: Od „Orfeusza” do „Studium o Hamlecie”. Teatr 13 Rzędów w Opolu, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, Wrocław 2014, s. 93–115. Przedruk [w:] Misterium zgrozy i urzeczenia. Przedstawienia Jerzego Grotowskiego i Teatru Laboratorium, pod redakcją Janusza Deglera i Grzegorza Ziółkowskiego, Instytut im. Jerzego Grotowskiego, Wrocław 2006, s. 335–357.

 

2007

Barba Eugenio: „Tragiczne dzieje doktora Fausta”: montaż tekstu, przełożył Grzegorz Ziółkowski [w:] Jerzy Grotowski: Ku teatrowi ubogiemu, opracował Eugenio Barba, przedmowa eter Brook, przełożył Grzegorz Ziółkowski, redakcja wydania polskiego Leszek Kolankiewicz, Instytut im. Jerzego Grotowskiego, Wrocław 2007, s. 75–92.

 

2009

Kosiński Dariusz: Święty przeciw Bogu – „Tragiczne dzieje doktora Fausta”, [w:] Dariusz Kosiński: Grotowski. Przewodnik, Instytut im. Jerzego Grotowskiego, Wrocław 2009, s. 158–170.

 

2012

Paprocka-Podlasiak Bogna: Faust J.W. Goethego na scenach polskich. Grotowski – Szajna – Jarocki, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika, Toruń 2012, s. 23–61.

 

2016

Campo Giuliano, Molik Zygmunt: Głos i Ciało, przełożyli Andrzej Wojtasik i Ewa Oleszko-Molik, Instytut im. Jerzego Grotowskiego, Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Teatralna im. Ludwika Solskiego, Wrocław – Kraków 2016, s. 201–203.

Kosiński Dariusz: „Do nieba? Bluźnisz daremnie”. Faust – Marlowe – Grotowski, „Pamiętnik Teatralny” 2016 z. 1–2, s. 5–49.

Świątkowska Wanda: „Tragiczne dzieje doktora Fausta” Christophera Marlowe’a: wstępny scenariusz Jerzego Grotowskiego wobec tekstu dramatu w przekładzie Jana Kasprowicza, „Performer” 2016 nr 11–12.

 

Texts in other languages


Barba Eugenio: „Faust” di Marlowe, [w:] tegoż: Alla ricerca del teatro perduto. Una proposta dell’ avanguardia polacca, Marsilio Editori, Padova 1965, s. 19–27. Wersje angielskie: „Doctor Faustus”: Textual Montage, translated by Richard Schechner, „Tulane Drama Review” 1964, t 24. Przedruk [w:] Jerzy Grotowski: Towards a Poor Theatre, edited by Eugenio Barba, preface by Peter Brook, Odin Teatrets Forlag, Holstebro 1968, s. 79–87.

Flaszen Ludwik: „The Tragical  History of Dr Faustus”. A Commentary  in the Performance, [w:] tegoż: Grotowski & Company, translated by Andrzej Wojtasik, edited by Paul Allain with the assistance of Monika Blige, with a tribute by Eugenio Barba, Icarus Publishing Enterprise, Holstebro – Malta – Wrocław 2010, s. 97–98.

Kustow Michael: Ludens Mysterium Tremendum et Fascinosum, „Encore” (London) 1963, IX–X.

Temkine Raymonde: „La vie tragique du Docteur Faust”, [w:] tejże: Grotowski, La Cité, Lausanne 1968, s. 183–189.

Temkine Raymonde: Le théâtre psycho-dynamique de Jerzy Grotowski. Expérience de théâtre total, „Les Lettres Nouvelles” X 1963, nr 31, s. 121–133.